Python分布式计算包dispy

释放双眼,带上耳机,听听看~!

之前……

相信很多使用python的同学都听说或者使用过asyncoro。asyncoro库是python的一个标准库,它是一个异步socket的包装。asyncoro使得我们可以更加方便的操作网络,避免直接使用socket,select,poll等工具时需要面对的复杂。dispy是基于asyncoro实现的分布式计算框架,它传承了asyncoro的优良传统,对外保持着极为简朴的风格。

dispy简介

dispy论其实现,还是比较复杂的,但由于大牛们精巧的封装和设计,dispy作为一项工具,非常容易入手并深入使用。dispy既适用于在单机多处理器(SMP)环境下并行计算,也适用在计算机集群上进行并行计算。dispy没有提供各个子任务的通信机制,如有需要,可以直接使用asyncoro库进行通信和同步。
dispy支持python2.7+和python3.1+版本,使用pip工具可以直接安装:sudo pip install dispy。

dispy使用

dispy的精简性的最大体现,就是其逻辑结构极其扁平。它只有四个组件:dispy.py、dispynode.py、dispyscheduler.py、dispynetrelay.py。
拿一个集群来说,每一个主机都可以认为是一个node,而每次提交任务的主体,可以认为是一个client。client提交计算任务,而node进行实际计算。client分两种类型,JobCluster和SharedJobCluster,二者功能基本一致,区别在于,一个主机上只可以有一个JobCluster实例,而可以存在多个SharedJobCluster实例。dispynode.py、dispyscheduler.py分别对应于两种client的node。
dispynetrelay的作用在于对跨域分布式计算提供支持。

node创建

node的创建不需要编写任何代码,在成功安装dispy后,直接在命令行输入dispynode.py即可运行node(–daemon可以创建守护进程运行)。node运行起来后,即可以提交任务进行计算。在创建node时也可以同时指定参数,如设定本地使用的最多CPU数量、向client传递文件时的最大size、指定端口等等。

创建client提交任务

前文已经提到过,dispy可以创建分两种类型client:JobCluster和SharedJobCluster。JobCluster的定义如下:
Class dispy.JobCluster (computation, nodes=[‘*’], depends=[], callback=None, cluster_status=None, ip_addr=None, ext_ip_addr=None, port=51347, node_port=51348, recover_file=None, dest_path=None, loglevel=logging.WARNING, setup=None, cleanup=True, pulse_interval=None, ping_interval=None, reentrant=False, secret=”, keyfile=None, certfile=None)

重要参数说明:

computation:计算主体,可以是一个函数(直接调用),也可以是一个可执行文件(用字符串表示);
node:依赖的机群中其他node的IP或域名;
depends:依赖的模块、文件或者类,如果其他node没有安装该client所在环境所具有的模块,可以通过此方式共享;
callback:回调函数,指定提交的任务返回中间值或者完成后要执行的行为;
cluster_status:用户指定的函数,在node状态变化时执行该函数;
ip_addr,ext_ip_addr:NAT相关,指定外网IP;
port,node_port:指定与其他client和node通信的端口;
recover_file:存放client运行状态的文件的名称,可以用来恢复client;
dest_path:各个client回传文件时在本地存放文件的路径;
loglevel:日志级别;
setup:指定各个node在运行任务时的初始化函数;
clean:是否清除分布任务生成的文件;
pulse_interval=None, ping_interval=None, reentrant=False:心跳保活相关,reentrant指定node已挂时的策略,reentrant为True时该node在自己已挂时会将任务移交其他node进行,reentrant为False时,node节点挂掉的任务会被取消;
secret,keyfile,certfile:通信安全相关以及SSH相关参数。

SharedJobCluster与JobCluster几乎一致,不再赘述。
Class dispy.SharedJobCluster(computation, nodes=[‘*’], depends=[], ip_addr=None, port=51347, scheduler_node=None, scheduler_port=None, ext_ip_addr=None, dest_path=None, loglevel=logging.WARNING, cleanup=True, reentrant=False, exclusive=False, secret=”, keyfile=None, certfile=None)

建立起来的Cluster可以通过submit方法提交任务,之后可以通过该方法返回的Job获取id,status(Created, Running, Finished, Cancelled orTerminated),ip_addr。提交的任务实体可以被称为Job,最终结果的返回值包含result,std_out,std_err,exception,start_time,end_time。

实例

EXAMPLE 1(官方)

# executed on each node before any jobs are scheduled
def setup(data_file):
    # read data in file to global variable
    global data, algorithms
    # if running under Windows, modules can't be global, as they are not
    # serializable; instead, they must be loaded in 'compute' (jobs); under
    # Posix (Linux, OS X and other Unix variants), modules declared global in
    # 'setup' will be available in 'compute'

    # 'os' module is already available (loaded by dispynode)
    if os.name != 'nt':  # if not Windows, load hashilb module in global scope
        global hashlib
    import hashlib
    data = open(data_file).read() # read file in to memory; data_file can now be deleted
    if sys.version_info.major > 2:
        data = data.encode() # convert to bytes
        algorithms = list(hashlib.algorithms_guaranteed)
    else:
        algorithms = hashlib.algorithms
    return 0  # successfull initialization should return 0

def cleanup():
    global data
    del data
    if os.name != 'nt':
        global hashlib
        del hashlib

def compute(n):
    if os.name == 'nt': # Under Windows modules must be loaded in jobs
        import hashlib
    # 'data' and 'algorithms' global variables are initialized in 'setup'
    alg = algorithms[n % len(algorithms)]
    csum = getattr(hashlib, alg)()
    csum.update(data)
    return (alg, csum.hexdigest())

if __name__ == '__main__':
    import dispy, sys, functools
    # if no data file name is given, use this file as data file
    data_file = sys.argv[1] if len(sys.argv) > 1 else sys.argv[0]
    cluster = dispy.JobCluster(compute, depends=[data_file],
                               setup=functools.partial(setup, data_file), cleanup=cleanup)
    jobs = []
    for n in range(10):
        job = cluster.submit(n)
        job.id = n
        jobs.append(job)

    for job in jobs:
        job()
        if job.status == dispy.DispyJob.Finished:
            print('%s: %s : %s' % (job.id, job.result[0], job.result[1]))
        else:
            print(job.exception)
    cluster.print_status()
    cluster.close()

EXAMPLE 2(官方)

# job computation runs at dispynode servers
def compute(path):
    import hashlib, time, os
    csum = hashlib.sha1()
    with open(os.path.basename(path), 'rb') as fd:
        while True:
            data = fd.read(1024000)
            if not data:
                break
            csum.update(data)
    time.sleep(5)
    return csum.hexdigest()

# 'cluster_status' callback function. It is called by dispy (client)
# to indicate node / job status changes. Here node initialization and
# job done status are used to schedule jobs, so at most one job is
# running on a node (even if a node has more than one processor). Data
# files are assumed to be 'data000', 'data001' etc.
def status_cb(status, node, job):
    if status == dispy.DispyJob.Finished:
        print('sha1sum for %s: %s' % (job.id, job.result))
    elif status == dispy.DispyJob.Terminated:
        print('sha1sum for %s failed: %s' % (job.id, job.exception))
    elif status == dispy.DispyNode.Initialized:
        print('node %s with %s CPUs available' % (node.ip_addr, node.avail_cpus))
    else:  # ignore other status messages
        return

    global submitted
    data_file = 'data%03d' % submitted
    if os.path.isfile(data_file):
        submitted += 1
        # 'node' and 'dispy_job_depends' are consumed by dispy;
        # 'compute' is called with only 'data_file' as argument(s)
        job = cluster.submit_node(node, data_file, dispy_job_depends=[data_file])
        job.id = data_file

if __name__ == '__main__':
    import dispy, sys, os
    cluster = dispy.JobCluster(compute, cluster_status=status_cb)
    submitted = 0
    while True:
        try:
            cmd = sys.stdin.readline().strip().lower()
        except KeyboardInterrupt:
            break
        if cmd == 'quit' or cmd == 'exit':
            break

    cluster.wait()
    cluster.print_status()

应用

MapReduce

# a version of word frequency example from mapreduce tutorial

def mapper(doc):
    # input reader and map function are combined
    import os
    words = []
    with open(os.path.join('/tmp', doc)) as fd:
        for line in fd:
            words.extend((word.lower(), 1) for word in line.split() /
                         if len(word) > 3 and word.isalpha())
    return words

def reducer(words):
    # we should generate sorted lists which are then merged,
    # but to keep things simple, we use dicts
    word_count = {}
    for word, count in words:
        if word not in word_count:
            word_count[word] = 0
        word_count[word] += count
    # print('reducer: %s to %s' % (len(words), len(word_count)))
    return word_count

if __name__ == '__main__':
    import dispy, logging
    # assume nodes node1 and node2 have 'doc1', 'doc2' etc. on their
    # local storage, so no need to transfer them
    map_cluster = dispy.JobCluster(mapper, nodes=['node1', 'node2'], reentrant=True)
    # any node can work on reduce
    reduce_cluster = dispy.JobCluster(reducer, nodes=['*'], reentrant=True)
    map_jobs = []
    for f in ['doc1', 'doc2', 'doc3', 'doc4', 'doc5']:
        job = map_cluster.submit(f)
        map_jobs.append(job)
    reduce_jobs = []
    for map_job in map_jobs:
        words = map_job()
        if not words:
            print(map_job.exception)
            continue
        # simple partition
        n = 0
        while n < len(words):
            m = min(len(words) - n, 1000)
            reduce_job = reduce_cluster.submit(words[n:n+m])
            reduce_jobs.append(reduce_job)
            n += m
    # reduce
    word_count = {}
    for reduce_job in reduce_jobs:
        words = reduce_job()
        if not words:
            print(reduce_job.exception)
            continue
        for word, count in words.iteritems():
            if word not in word_count:
                word_count[word] = 0
            word_count[word] += count
    # sort words by frequency and print
    for word in sorted(word_count, key=lambda x: word_count[x], reverse=True):
        count = word_count[word]
        print(word, count)
    reduce_cluster.print_status()

【转自慕课】https://www.imooc.com

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